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桁架机械手

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:hbrzsz.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手由(you)主(zhu)体、驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)系(xi)统(tong)和(he)控制系(xi)统(tong)三(san)个基本(ben)部分组成(cheng)。按机(ji)器(qi)人结构(gou)分类为直角(jiao)坐标型(xing),机(ji)械(xie)手沿二(er)维直角(jiao)坐标系(xi)移(yi)(yi)动(dong)(dong)。主(zhu)体部分通常采用龙门式结构(gou),由(you)y向(xiang)横(heng)(heng)梁与(yu)(yu)导(dao)轨(gui)、z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕(zhen)、十字滑(hua)座(zuo)(zuo)、立(li)柱、过(guo)(guo)渡连接(jie)板和(he)基座(zuo)(zuo)等部分组成(cheng),z向(xiang)的直线运动(dong)(dong)皆为交流伺服(fu)电动(dong)(dong)机(ji)通过(guo)(guo)蜗(wo)轮减速器(qi)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)齿(chi)轮与(yu)(yu)y向(xiang)横(heng)(heng)梁、z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕(zhen)上(shang)固定的齿(chi)条作(zuo)滚动(dong)(dong),驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)移(yi)(yi)动(dong)(dong)部件沿导(dao)轨(gui)快速运动(dong)(dong)。移(yi)(yi)动(dong)(dong)部件为质量较轻的十字滑(hua)座(zuo)(zuo)和(he)z向(xiang)滑(hua)枕(zhen),滑(hua)枕(zhen)采用由(you)铝合金拉制的型(xing)材。横(heng)(heng)梁采用方钢(gang)型(xing)材,在(zai)横(heng)(heng)梁上(shang)安装有(you)导(dao)轨(gui)和(he)齿(chi)条,通过(guo)(guo)滚轮与(yu)(yu)导(dao)轨(gui)接(jie)触,整个机(ji)械(xie)手都悬挂在(zai)其上(shang)。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由(you)(you)于桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)度(du)快,加速(su)(su)度(du)大(da),加减速(su)(su)时(shi)间短(duan)。当输(shu)送较重的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件时(shi),惯量大(da),因此,伺(si)服(fu)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)电(dian)机(ji)(ji)要有(you)足(zu)够的(de)(de)(de)(de)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)和(he)制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)力,支撑元件也(ye)要有(you)足(zu)够的(de)(de)(de)(de)刚度(du)及(ji)(ji)强度(du)。只有(you)这样(yang),才能(neng)(neng)使(shi)伺(si)服(fu)电(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)满足(zu)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)响应、高(gao)刚度(du)及(ji)(ji)高(gao)精度(du)要求(qiu)。在选择(ze)合(he)适伺(si)服(fu)电(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)情况(kuang)下,根(gen)(gen)据物料运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)距离和(he)运(yun)行(xing)节拍(pai),计算(suan)(suan)出伺(si)服(fu)系统的(de)(de)(de)(de)位移和(he)轨迹(ji),对(dui)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器PID参(can)数进行(xing)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)态调(diao)整。桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)根(gen)(gen)据接收到(dao)(dao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)位移、速(su)(su)度(du)指令(ling),经(jing)变(bian)化、放大(da)并调(diao)整处理(li)后,传(chuan)递给运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)单元,通过光纤传(chuan)感器对(dui)运(yun)行(xing)状(zhuang)态进行(xing)实时(shi)检测,在高(gao)速(su)(su)搬运(yun)过程(cheng)中,运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)部件在极短(duan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)时(shi)间内(nei)到(dao)(dao)达给定的(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)度(du),并能(neng)(neng)在高(gao)速(su)(su)行(xing)程(cheng)中瞬间准停,通过高(gao)分辩率绝(jue)对(dui)式编码器的(de)(de)(de)(de)插(cha)补运(yun)算(suan)(suan),控制机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)误(wu)差(cha)和(he)测量误(wu)差(cha)对(dui)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)精度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响。由(you)(you)于被输(shu)送的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)件不同,质量也(ye)不同,因此,桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)有(you)多种规格和(he)系列。在选择(ze)时(shi),根(gen)(gen)据被输(shu)送工(gong)(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)质量,加工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)节拍(pai)来选取。但机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)手(shou)(shou)臂(bei),夹(jia)持方(fang)式,则根(gen)(gen)据被输(shu)送工(gong)(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)形(xing)状(zhuang)、结构及(ji)(ji)机(ji)(ji)床夹(jia)具定夹(jia)方(fang)式来设(she)计(见(jian)图2)。

机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)能够借助可(ke)编程序(xu)来处理和执行任务。机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)主要(yao)由手(shou)图 1 臂、回(hui)转装置、运(yun)动(dong)部件(jian)及驱动(dong)部件(jian)组成。通(tong)过(guo)对(dui)(dui)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)外形(xing)或工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)上(shang)定(ding)位(wei)支撑点(dian)定(ding)位(wei)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)。例如,在汽(qi)车发动(dong)机(ji)(ji)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)柔性自动(dong)线(xian)物流输(shu)送中,桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)会(hui)根据缸体、缸盖(gai)、曲轴等工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)外形(xing)特(te)点(dian),选取不(bu)同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)和夹(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)方(fang)(fang)式。柔性机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)上(shang)采用气缸和电(dian)机(ji)(ji)进行定(ding)位(wei)和夹(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)切换(huan)驱动(dong),一套(tao)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)可(ke)完成不(bu)同(tong)品种的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)搬运(yun)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作。夹(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)定(ding)位(wei)模(mo)块(kuai)可(ke)根据产品质(zhi)量(liang)和外形(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大小采用系(xi)列化设计,机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)定(ding)位(wei)模(mo)块(kuai)安装方(fang)(fang)式相(xiang)同(tong),针对(dui)(dui)不(bu)同(tong)系(xi)列的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian),只(zhi)(zhi)需切换(huan)相(xiang)应的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)定(ding)位(wei)模(mo)块(kuai)即可(ke),满(man)足快速(su)切换(huan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)需要(yao)。这样,当加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)不(bu)同(tong)品种的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian),只(zhi)(zhi)须(xu)变换(huan)夹(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)持(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)就可(ke)实现,提高了桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔性化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁架机械手输送(song)装置(zhi)的(de)发展及现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展,经历了(le)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)和柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)两(liang)个时代。就目前(qian)而言, 在(zai)国内二者(zhe)均有之(zhi)。刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)为(wei)(wei)棘轮(lun)棘爪、摆杆、抬起步伐(fa)、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等形(xing)式(shi)。随着加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展,由其(qi)(qi)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)逐步替代组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),它(ta)以(yi)(yi)适(shi)应(ying)小批(pi)量多品种的(de)(de)(de)(de)优点,得到(dao)市场的(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认可(ke),并称其(qi)(qi)为(wei)(wei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)。这(zhei)种以(yi)(yi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),就其(qi)(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)装置(zhi)(zhi)或输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)带依然为(wei)(wei)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)类(lei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)可(ke)谓(wei)是(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)。当今(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)又有了(le)飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)形(xing)式(shi)以(yi)(yi)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou))并存(cun),或纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),即(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)全部(bu)由桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng),这(zhei)是(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),即(ji)主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)也(ye)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心配(pei)以(yi)(yi)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),又称之(zhi)为(wei)(wei)敏(min)捷柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),是(shi)敏(min)捷制(zhi)造系(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)部(bu)分(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)采(cai)用(yong)(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步距可(ke)根据(ju)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)配(pei)置(zhi)(zhi)随意改(gai)变(bian),自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与(yu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)之(zhi)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)装位置(zhi)(zhi)不再象刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按照(zhao)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步距或步距倍数的(de)(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求进(jin)行严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)装,且输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)速度也(ye)可(ke)根据(ju)生产节拍及(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)距离而改(gai)变(bian)。而真正体(ti)(ti)现柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)一(yi)面(mian)是(shi),当被加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)产品改(gai)变(bian)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)分(fen)不会不适(shi)应(ying)而全部(bu)更换,只要(yao)改(gai)变(bian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)程序和机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)局部(bu)结构即(ji)可(ke)。采(cai)用(yong)(yong)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)更先进(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)面(mian)是(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)整(zheng)体(ti)(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)协(xie)调统(tong)(tong)一(yi)。因此(ci),桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)才在(zai)当今(jin)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)上越来越多地被采(cai)用(yong)(yong),使整(zheng)个生产过程通过信息流系(xi)统(tong)(tong)进(jin)行控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)。在(zai)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)和运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)过程中,所需各种信息收集、处(chu)理、反(fan)馈,并通过电(dian)子计算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或其(qi)(qi)他控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)装置(zhi)(zhi)(液压、气压装置(zhi)(zhi)等),对(dui)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)或运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)设备(bei)实行分(fen)级(ji)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)。信息流系(xi)统(tong)(tong)分(fen)为(wei)(wei)由中央管(guan)理计算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)计算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)计算机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数控(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)以(yi)(yi)及(ji)信息传送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)。目前(qian),汽(qi)车(che)制(zhi)造业中加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)发(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体(ti)(ti)、缸盖及(ji)曲轴等大批(pi)量关键零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),大都采(cai)用(yong)(yong)了(le)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图3)。

2. 国(guo)内外的差距

当下,我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展很(hen)快,技术(shu)水(shui)(shui)平有(you)了很(hen)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)提高,与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)变(bian)得越来越小,甚至有(you)些(xie)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)相比已经没有(you)什么差距(ju)。特(te)别是(shi)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家重大科技专(zhuan)项的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)开展,为(wei)(wei)(wei)我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)上(shang)档次上(shang)水(shui)(shui)平提高了加(jia)(jia)(jia)速度,成(cheng)(cheng)绩显(xian)(xian)而(er)(er)易见。加(jia)(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)这几年发(fa)展的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)特(te)别快,但(dan)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)技术(shu)水(shui)(shui)平和(he)档次,较国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)还很(hen)明显(xian)(xian),国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)采用(yong)桁架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)较为(wei)(wei)(wei)普遍,而(er)(er)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内却为(wei)(wei)(wei)数(shu)不多(duo),国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内庞大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)汽车(che)(che)生产市场所(suo)采用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)带桁架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),大多(duo)从国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)进口。如无锡柴(chai)油发(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)缸体(ti)缸盖柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)由(you)德国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公(gong)司总承包,由(you)BZ800加(jia)(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)心、GROB专(zhuan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏(lou)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、压(ya)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)检具、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及(ji)珩(heng)磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)。输送(song)(song)采用(yong)空(kong)中(zhong)桁架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)输送(song)(song)。仅以汽车(che)(che)制造业而(er)(er)言(yan),国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内生产的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),采用(yong)桁架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)屈(qu)指(zhi)可(ke)数(shu)。大连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)和(he)沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)等(deng)生产出了该方(fang)面的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),并(bing)在生产实际(ji)中(zhong)得到了应用(yong)。图(tu)4是(shi)大连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)生产的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸体(ti)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。加(jia)(jia)(jia)工两种缸体(ti),分别为(wei)(wei)(wei)四缸和(he)六缸,其输送(song)(song)采用(yong)空(kong)中(zhong)桁架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)和(he)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)两端为(wei)(wei)(wei)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道等(deng)形(xing)式。桁架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)两个(ge),一个(ge)上(shang)料(liao)(liao),一个(ge)下料(liao)(liao)。它的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)(cheng)功(gong),标志着我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产由(you)桁架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)输送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)开始向国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)水(shui)(shui)准迈(mai)进。

上述(shu)提及的(de)只是(shi)数量上的(de)比(bi)较,其实真正的(de)原因还是(shi)国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机械手(shou)的(de)技(ji)术(shu)水平(ping)与国(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)有(you)(you)着一(yi)定(ding)的(de)差距。柔性加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)动线(xian)采用的(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机械手(shou),也是(shi)从(cong)(cong)国(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)进口的(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机械手(shou)。那时,国(guo)(guo)内还没有(you)(you)专门(men)生产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机械手(shou)的(de)厂家(jia)。如今(jin),国(guo)(guo)内巨一(yi)等一(yi)些桁(heng)架(jia)机械手(shou)生产(chan)(chan)厂家(jia)的(de)涌出,为国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)柔性加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)动线(xian)带来(lai)了希望,进而(er)缩小了与国(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)在生产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机械手(shou)方(fang)面的(de)差距,国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机械手(shou)在柔性加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)动线(xian)的(de)应用也越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)多(duo),从(cong)(cong)而(er)打破(po)国(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)市场被外(wai)(wai)国(guo)(guo)人的(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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