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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:hbrzsz.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使(shi)用(yong)卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心吗(ma)?——加(jia)工工件特征

加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)类型(xing)的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)定需要(yao)(yao)考虑加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对象(xiang)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)范围和设备价格等(deng)(deng)(deng)因素(su),根据(ju)所选(xuan)(xuan)零(ling)件族(zu) (组(zu))进行。如(ru)果您的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件具有(you)以(yi)下特征,则应选(xuan)(xuan)择卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin):加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两面(mian)以(yi)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)零(ling)件或加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在四周呈径向辐射状排列(lie)的(de)(de)(de)孔系、面(mian),如(ru)箱体类、壳体类零(ling)件等(deng)(deng)(deng),应选(xuan)(xuan)择卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin);被加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)位置精度要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)较(jiao)高,宜选(xuan)(xuan)用高精密卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin);零(ling)件在一次装夹中(zhong)需要(yao)(yao)完(wan)成(cheng)多面(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时,可(ke)选(xuan)(xuan)择立卧(wo)复合式(shi)(shi)五面(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)。当然,上(shang)述各(ge)点也不(bu)是(shi)绝对的(de)(de)(de),一方(fang)面(mian)是(shi)由于加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)正(zheng)朝(chao)着复合化方(fang)向发(fa)展,另一方(fang)面(mian)选(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)时要(yao)(yao)综合考虑生产效率、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)和设备资(zi)金等(deng)(deng)(deng)因素(su),要(yao)(yao)以(yi)性价比来衡量选(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)方(fang)案的(de)(de)(de)合理性。

建议(yi):采购用(yong)户需(xu)要(yao)根据加工对象、加工工艺(yi)、加工范围等(deng)特(te)征来确定是否(fou)使(shi)用(yong)卧(wo)式(shi)加工中心以及使(shi)用(yong)什么样的卧(wo)式(shi)加工中心。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工作台尺寸(cun)

这是卧式加工中心的(de)(de)主参数,主要(yao)取决(jue)于典(dian)型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)外廓(kuo)尺寸、装(zhuang)夹方式等。应选择比(bi)(bi)典(dian)型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)外廓(kuo)尺寸稍(shao)大(da)一些的(de)(de)工作(zuo)台,以便留出安(an)装(zhuang)夹具所需的(de)(de)空间,保证零(ling)件(jian)(jian)在其上面能够顺利装(zhuang)夹,此外还应考虑工作(zuo)台的(de)(de)承载能力、T形槽数量和尺寸等,小(xiao)尺寸的(de)(de)比(bi)(bi)较通(tong)用,比(bi)(bi)如站内的(de)(de)卧式加工中心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等。

建议:目(mu)前(qian)市场上的(de)卧式加(jia)工中心工作(zuo)台尺寸多为1000以下的(de),能够满足(zu)大多数(shu)用户(hu)的(de)需(xu)求。

(2)坐标轴行程

最(zui)基本的(de)坐(zuo)(zuo)标(biao)轴(zhou)是X、Y、Z三轴(zhou),其行程(cheng)和工(gong)(gong)作台尺寸(cun)(cun)有相应(ying)的(de)比例关(guan)系,工(gong)(gong)作台面的(de)大小基本上确定了加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)空间的(de)大小。如(ru)个别零件(jian)的(de)尺寸(cun)(cun)大于卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心行程(cheng)时,则必(bi)须要(yao)求零件(jian)的(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)区域(yu)处于机床的(de)行程(cheng)范围之内(nei),此(ci)外(wai)还要(yao)考虑(lv)零件(jian)是否与(yu)机床交换刀具(ju)的(de)空间干涉(she)(she)、与(yu)机床防护罩等(deng)附(fu)件(jian)发生干涉(she)(she)等(deng)系列问题。而对(dui)需要(yao)多轴(zhou)联动加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心 (如(ru)增加(jia)(jia)回转坐(zuo)(zuo)标(biao)A、B、C或附(fu)加(jia)(jia)坐(zuo)(zuo)标(biao)U、V、W),如(ru)四轴(zhou)、五轴(zhou)联动卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心,这(zhei)就(jiu)需要(yao)特(te)殊订货(huo),同时必(bi)须对(dui)相应(ying)配套(tao)的(de)编程(cheng)软件(jian)、测量(liang)手段以及机床价(jia)格等(deng)有全面的(de)考虑(lv)和安排。

建议:采购(gou)用户(hu)需要根据(ju)加工(gong)工(gong)件(jian)规格选(xuan)择(ze)不同坐标轴行程的卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心,多轴联动需要特殊定制。

(3)主(zhu)轴(zhou)电动机功率与转(zhuan)矩(ju)

它反映了卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)的切削效率(lv)(lv),也从一个侧面反映了卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)的切削刚(gang)(gang)性和机(ji)床整体刚(gang)(gang)度。主轴电(dian)动机(ji)功率(lv)(lv)在同类规(gui)格的卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)上可以(yi)有各种(zhong)不同的配置,同类规(gui)格的主轴转(zhuan)速不同的卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin),主轴电(dian)动机(ji)功率(lv)(lv)可以(yi)相(xiang)差很(hen)大。

建议:采(cai)购用户应根(gen)据自身典型(xing)零件毛坯余量(liang)大小(xiao)、切削能(neng)力 (单位(wei)时(shi)间金属切削量(liang))、要(yao)求达(da)到的加(jia)工(gong)精度(du)、实际能(neng)配置的刀具等因素综合(he)选(xuan)择。

(4)主轴(zhou)转速(su)与进给速(su)度

需要高(gao)速(su)(su)切(qie)削(xue)或超低(di)速(su)(su)切(qie)削(xue)时(shi),应关注主(zhu)轴的(de)转(zhuan)速(su)(su)范(fan)围(wei)。特别是高(gao)速(su)(su)切(qie)削(xue)时(shi),既要有高(gao)的(de)主(zhu)轴转(zhuan)速(su)(su),同时(shi)也(ye)要具备(bei)与(yu)主(zhu)轴转(zhuan)速(su)(su)相匹配的(de)进给速(su)(su)度。目前卧式加工中心(xin)高(gao)速(su)(su)化趋势发展很(hen)快,主(zhu)轴从每分钟(zhong)几千转(zhuan)到几万转(zhuan),直(zhi)(zhi)线坐标快速(su)(su)移动速(su)(su)度从10—20/min上升到80m/min以上,当然其功能部件(jian)如电(dian)主(zhu)轴、直(zhi)(zhi)线电(dian)动机、直(zhi)(zhi)线滚(gun)动导(dao)轨、主(zhu)轴轴承等及相配套(tao)的(de)光(guang)栅尺(chi)、刀具等附件(jian)价格也(ye)都相应上升,甚至很(hen)昂贵。

建议:采(cai)购用户必(bi)须根据自(zi)身的技术能力和配套能力合理作出(chu)卧式(shi)加工中心的合理选型。

(5)刀库容量

可以根据被(bei)加(jia)工(gong)零(ling)(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)工(gong)艺分析结果来确(que)定所(suo)需数量(liang),通常以典(dian)型零(ling)(ling)件(jian)在(zai)一次装夹中所(suo)需刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)(ju)数量(liang)来确(que)定刀(dao)(dao)库的(de)(de)容(rong)量(liang),卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心以选(xuan)用40把刀(dao)(dao)左(zuo)右的(de)(de)刀(dao)(dao)库为宜。同时(shi)要关注最大(da)刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)(ju)直(zhi)径(jing)与长度以及最大(da)刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)(ju)重量(liang)等(deng)。用于FMC或FMS的(de)(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中心,应选(xuan)择(ze)大(da)容(rong)量(liang)刀(dao)(dao)库,甚至配(pei)置可交换(huan)刀(dao)(dao)库。

建(jian)议(yi):普通(tong)卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)选(xuan)择(ze)40把刀左右的刀库即够(gou)用,用于FMC或FMS的卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)应选(xuan)择(ze)大容量刀库。

3我(wo)需要选用什么精度(du)的卧式加工中心?——精度(du)的选定

加工中心的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)等(deng)级主(zhu)要(yao)根据典型零件(jian)(jian)关键部位的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)来确定(ding)(ding)。其精(jing)(jing)度(du)主(zhu)要(yao)包括定(ding)(ding)位精(jing)(jing)度(du)、重复定(ding)(ding)位精(jing)(jing)度(du)和铣圆精(jing)(jing)度(du),特别是重复定(ding)(ding)位精(jing)(jing)度(du),它反映(ying)了坐标(biao)(biao)轴的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)位稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)性,是衡量(liang)该轴是否稳(wen)定(ding)(ding)可靠工作的(de)(de)(de)基本(ben)(ben)指标(biao)(biao)。特别值(zhi)(zhi)得注(zhu)意的(de)(de)(de)是,选型订货时(shi)必须全面分析,不(bu)(bu)能简单地看产(chan)品样本(ben)(ben)所列(lie)(lie)的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)数(shu)(shu)值(zhi)(zhi),因为标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)、规(gui)定(ding)(ding)数(shu)(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)、检测(ce)方(fang)法不(bu)(bu)同(tong),数(shu)(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)含义就不(bu)(bu)同(tong)。刊物、样本(ben)(ben)、合(he)格证(zheng)所列(lie)(lie)出的(de)(de)(de)单位长度(du)上允(yun)许的(de)(de)(de)正负(fu)值(zhi)(zhi)(一(yi)般为正负(fu)0.05)常常是不(bu)(bu)明确的(de)(de)(de),订货时(shi)要(yao)特别注(zhu)意,一(yi)定(ding)(ding)要(yao)弄清是IOS(国际标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)化组织标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))、VDI(德国标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))、JIS(日本(ben)(ben)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))、NMTBA(美(mei)国机床制(zhi)造商协会(hui)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))还是NAS(美(mei)国标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))及GB(中国标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))等(deng),进而分析各种不(bu)(bu)同(tong)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)所规(gui)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)检测(ce)计算方(fang)法和检测(ce)环境条件(jian)(jian),才不(bu)(bu)会(hui)产(chan)生误解。

铣圆精(jing)度是综(zong)合评价卧式加工中心有关数(shu)控轴的(de)伺服跟随运动特性和数(shu)控系(xi)统插补功(gong)能的(de)主(zhu)要(yao)指(zhi)标之一(yi)。不论典型零(ling)件是否有此需(xu)要(yao),为了(le)将来可能的(de)需(xu)要(yao)及更好地控制(zhi)精(jing)度,必须重视这(zhei)一(yi)指(zhi)标。

要(yao)特别注意区别加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)与机床精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)两个不同的(de)(de)(de)概念。将生产(chan)厂家样本(ben)(ben)(ben)上(shang)或(huo)(huo)产(chan)品合(he)格证(zheng)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)位(wei)置(zhi)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)当作卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)是(shi)(shi)错误(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)。样本(ben)(ben)(ben)或(huo)(huo)合(he)格证(zheng)上(shang)标明的(de)(de)(de)位(wei)置(zhi)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)是(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)本(ben)(ben)(ben)身的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)(du),而(er)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)是(shi)(shi)包括卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)本(ben)(ben)(ben)身所允许误(wu)(wu)差(cha)(cha)在内(nei)的(de)(de)(de)整个工(gong)艺系(xi)(xi)统各(ge)种因素所产(chan)生的(de)(de)(de)误(wu)(wu)差(cha)(cha)总和。整个工(gong)艺系(xi)(xi)统误(wu)(wu)差(cha)(cha)产(chan)生的(de)(de)(de)原因是(shi)(shi)很复杂的(de)(de)(de),很难用线性关系(xi)(xi)定(ding)量表达。选型时,可参考工(gong)序能(neng)力系(xi)(xi)数Cp的(de)(de)(de)评(ping)定(ding)方法(fa)来作为(wei)机床加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)选型依据。一般而(er)言,Cp应大于1.33。

站内高精密的几款卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin):MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱式卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)性能都不错。

建议(yi):采购用户在挑选不同精度(du)的卧式加工中心时,需(xu)要考虑:不同标准对应的单(dan)位(wei)长度(du)含义;重视铣圆精度(du)指标;区别加工精度(du)和机(ji)床精度(du)。

4我应(ying)该选(xuan)择哪(na)种数(shu)控系统?——数(shu)控系统的(de)选(xuan)定(ding)

数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)分(fen)为基(ji)本功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)与(yu)(yu)(yu)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng),可以(yi)从操作(zuo)方(fang)式(shi)、用户功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)、控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)方(fang)式(shi)、驱动形(xing)(xing)式(shi)、反馈形(xing)(xing)式(shi)、接口形(xing)(xing)式(shi)、检测与(yu)(yu)(yu)测量、报(bao)警与(yu)(yu)(yu)提(ti)示、故障诊断等(deng)方(fang)面(mian)综合衡量。基(ji)本功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)是(shi)必须提(ti)供的(de)(de)(de)(de),而只有当用户选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)了(le)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)后,厂家(jia)才会(hui)另行提(ti)供并另行加价,且定价一般较高(gao)(gao)(gao)。总体而言,数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)一定要根据加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)性(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)需要来(lai)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze),订购时(shi)既要把需要的(de)(de)(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)订全(quan),不(bu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)遗漏,同(tong)时(shi)避免使用率不(bu)高(gao)(gao)(gao)而造成(cheng)浪费,还(hai)需注意各功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)之间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)关联性(xing)。另一方(fang)面(mian),在(zai)可供选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)的(de)(de)(de)(de)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)中(zhong),如(ru)SIEMENS系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、国产(chan)华中(zhong)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)等(deng),性(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)高(gao)(gao)(gao)低(di)差别很(hen)大(da),价格亦相差很(hen)大(da),进口系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)或国产(chan)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)亦决定其价格的(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)(gao)低(di)。总体上来(lai)看,法(fa)兰克系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)性(xing)价比(bi)(bi)(bi)(bi)比(bi)(bi)(bi)(bi)较高(gao)(gao)(gao),国内卧式(shi)加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)使用比(bi)(bi)(bi)(bi)例比(bi)(bi)(bi)(bi)较高(gao)(gao)(gao)。站内卧式(shi)加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)使用法(fa)兰克数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)也比(bi)(bi)(bi)(bi)较多(duo),比(bi)(bi)(bi)(bi)如(ru)MH-800B 、 LH-500B都是(shi)比(bi)(bi)(bi)(bi)较好的(de)(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)。多(duo)台卧式(shi)加工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)选(xuan)(xuan)型时(shi),应尽可能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)选(xuan)(xuan)用同(tong)一厂家(jia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong),这样操作(zuo)、编程、维修都比(bi)(bi)(bi)(bi)较方(fang)便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我需要选择几台卧式(shi)加(jia)工中心能达到的(de)我的(de)产量要求?——生产能力的(de)估算

选(xuan)型时,必须(xu)要考虑(lv)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)能达到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)能力(li)(li),即要求选(xuan)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)在(zai)(zai)一(yi)年(nian)之内能加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种(zhong)典型零(ling)件(jian)(jian)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出多少数量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)。要得到(dao)这(zhei)些(xie)数据必须(xu)对(dui)每(mei)一(yi)种(zhong)确定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)典型零(ling)件(jian)(jian)进行(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时和生产(chan)节拍的(de)(de)(de)(de)估算(suan)(suan)。一(yi)般步骤为:首先,根据已选(xuan)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)典型零(ling)件(jian)(jian)进行(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺分(fen)析,初步确定(ding)(ding)一(yi)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺路(lu)线(xian),在(zai)(zai)这(zhei)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺路(lu)线(xian)中(zhong)(zhong)选(xuan)出准备在(zai)(zai)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu);第二(er),根据现(xian)用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺参数,估算(suan)(suan)出每(mei)道在(zai)(zai)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)单个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)时间(jian);第三(san),由每(mei)个单工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)时间(jian)计算(suan)(suan)出选(xuan)定(ding)(ding)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)在(zai)(zai)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)总时间(jian),进而计算(suan)(suan)出年(nian)产(chan)量(liang)即生产(chan)能力(li)(li)。如果(guo)估算(suan)(suan)结果(guo)达不到(dao)目(mu)标值,但(dan)相差不大,则可以通过修(xiu)改(gai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺参数的(de)(de)(de)(de)方法(fa)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)以调整;如果(guo)相差很大,则应考虑(lv)增加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)台数的(de)(de)(de)(de)配置。

建议:采购用(yong)户(hu)需(xu)要根据工(gong)件(jian)加工(gong)工(gong)时和生产(chan)节拍的估算,决定(ding)卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心配备台(tai)数。

6卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心有好(hao)多选(xuan)配(pei)(pei)的附件(jian)我应(ying)该如何选(xuan)配(pei)(pei)?——其(qi)他(ta)功能(neng)部件(jian)及(ji)附件(jian)的选(xuan)定(ding)

(1)坐(zuo)标轴数和联动(dong)轴数

坐(zuo)标(biao)轴(zhou)数和联动轴(zhou)数均应满足典型零(ling)件(jian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)要求(qiu)。一(yi)般情况下,同(tong)厂家、同(tong)规格、同(tong)等精度的卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin),增加(jia)(jia)一(yi)个标(biao)准坐(zuo)标(biao)轴(zhou),价(jia)格约增加(jia)(jia)30%—50%。尽管增加(jia)(jia)坐(zuo)标(biao)轴(zhou)数可以强化(hua)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)的功能(neng),是机床上(shang)档(dang)次(ci)的标(biao)志(zhi)之一(yi),但最终还是要在工(gong)艺要求(qiu)和资金条(tiao)件(jian)下平衡(heng)决(jue)定。

(2)工作台

卧式加工(gong)中心可配(pei)置(zhi)用于(yu)分度的回(hui)转(zhuan)(zhuan)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台和数控回(hui)转(zhuan)(zhuan)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台,后者(zhe)能够实现任意分度,作(zuo)(zuo)为B轴与(yu)(yu)其他轴联动控制。回(hui)转(zhuan)(zhuan)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台配(pei)置(zhi)与(yu)(yu)否(fou)以(yi)(yi)及如(ru)何配(pei)置(zhi)必须(xu)以(yi)(yi)实际需(xu)要来确定,以(yi)(yi)经济(ji)、实用为目的。

(3)自动换刀装置 (ATC)

ATC的(de)选择主要考虑(lv)换刀(dao)时间(jian)与可靠性。过分(fen)强调换刀(dao)时间(jian)会使加工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)价格(ge)大幅度提(ti)(ti)高并(bing)使故(gu)障(zhang)率(lv)上(shang)升。据统计,加工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)故(gu)障(zhang)中(zhong)约有(you)50%与ATC有(you)关,因(yin)此,在满足使用要求的(de)前提(ti)(ti)下,尽量选用可靠性高的(de)ATC,以降低(di)故(gu)障(zhang)率(lv)和(he)整机成本

(4)必要的附件、配套件

选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)时(shi),还应(ying)注意选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)一(yi)些配(pei)套件(jian)(jian)及附(fu)件(jian)(jian),尽(jin)(jin)量(liang)避免(mian)因缺少一(yi)个(ge)几万(wan)元就能(neng)购买的(de)附(fu)件(jian)(jian)而影响卧式(shi)加工中(zhong)心的(de)正常运行(xing)。慎(shen)重选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择刀柄和刀具也是(shi)(shi)保证卧式(shi)加工中(zhong)心正常运行(xing)的(de)关(guan)键,最(zui)佳(jia)的(de)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择办法(fa)应(ying)是(shi)(shi)根据典型(xing)零件(jian)(jian)所需(xu)的(de)品种和数量(liang)来确定(ding),并在(zai)使用(yong)中(zhong)陆续(xu)添置。在(zai)卧式(shi)加工中(zhong)心的(de)构成中(zhong),排(pai)屑(xie)装(zhuang)置、防护装(zhuang)置和对(dui)(dui)刀装(zhuang)置 (如刀具预调仪)等均是(shi)(shi)必(bi)需(xu)的(de),对(dui)(dui)一(yi)些尽(jin)(jin)管不(bu)是(shi)(shi)必(bi)需(xu)的(de)配(pei)套件(jian)(jian),但如果(guo)价格不(bu)高,对(dui)(dui)使用(yong)带来很多方便,也应(ying)尽(jin)(jin)量(liang)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong),如附(fu)件(jian)(jian)铣头、储刀料架、运刀具车、装(zhuang)卸器等。

建(jian)议:配(pei)件越高,能(neng)实现的功能(neng)越多(duo),但价格(ge)也越贵,采(cai)购用(yong)户需要根(gen)据加工需求酌情选配(pei)。

7卧式加工中心(xin)选型时还有什么其他需要注意(yi)的?——需要注意(yi)的一些问(wen)题

(1)结构(gou)设计(ji)

加工中(zhong)心(xin)对(dui)其床(chuang)身、立柱(zhu)、工作(zuo)台、主轴以及刀库(ku)等功(gong)能(neng)部(bu)件的(de)(de)(de)结(jie)构设计有着很(hen)高(gao)的(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求,以达到其高(gao)强度、高(gao)刚度、高(gao)抗振性(xing)和稳(wen)定(ding)性(xing)的(de)(de)(de)目的(de)(de)(de)。选型时(shi),应特别注意(yi)把(ba)其结(jie)构作(zuo)为一项重要(yao)的(de)(de)(de)具体内容来进(jin)行(xing)要(yao)求与考虑。

(2)功能与加工的适应性

虽(sui)然加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin)可以进行钻、扩、铣、镗、铰、攻螺纹乃至车(che)削 (如(ru)车(che)铣复合加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin))等(deng)多种(zhong)加(jia)工(gong)(gong),但是在具(ju)体选(xuan)择时,还应根据具(ju)体需要(yao)来(lai)考(kao)虑机床的功能与加(jia)工(gong)(gong)是否(fou)相适应等(deng)问题。要(yao)注意以下几点:

A、复杂曲线加(jia)工时,要(yao)考(kao)(kao)虑CNC是(shi)否有所(suo)(suo)需(xu)要(yao)的曲线插(cha)补功(gong)能,或选择(ze)什么方式逼(bi)近加(jia)工曲线并(bing)保证所(suo)(suo)要(yao)求的表(biao)面(mian)粗糙度。三维(wei)加(jia)工时,要(yao)考(kao)(kao)虑选择(ze)适合的刀具结构(gou),还要(yao)考(kao)(kao)虑程序编(bian)制(zhi)能力,如有必(bi)要(yao)则必(bi)须配备自动编(bian)程装置(zhi)(zhi)或后置(zhi)(zhi)处理(li)编(bian)程装置(zhi)(zhi)。

B、需要(yao)(yao)进行螺(luo)(luo)纹切削(xue) (非攻螺(luo)(luo)纹方式(shi))时(shi),不仅要(yao)(yao)看是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有(you)螺(luo)(luo)纹切削(xue)功能(neng)、螺(luo)(luo)旋线插补功能(neng)和(he)主轴转(zhuan)(zhuan)动与进给同步功能(neng),还要(yao)(yao)考(kao)虑机(ji)床是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有(you)径向(xiang)进给装置(zhi)、是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有(you)主轴在旋转(zhuan)(zhuan)方向(xiang)上(shang)任意角度位置(zhi)准(zhun)确定位功能(neng)。否(fou)(fou)则(ze),仅在数控系统中用了螺(luo)(luo)纹切削(xue)功能(neng)仍然无(wu)法进行螺(luo)(luo)纹切削(xue)C、采用金刚铰、浮动镗和(he)挤压加工等特种加工时(shi),既(ji)要(yao)(yao)考(kao)虑适(shi)宜的自(zi)动换刀的条件,又要(yao)(yao)考(kao)虑选择(ze)合(he)适(shi)的刀具结构(gou)和(he)切削(xue)用量(liang),应尽可能(neng)在购买(mai)主机(ji)时(shi)一并购置(zhi)部分易损部件及其(qi)他附(fu)件等。

D、如果有应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等的(de)规划,或要(yao)进行网络制造,则要(yao)注意通(tong)信(xin)功能,应选择具有RS—232、RS—485甚至MAP网络通(tong)信(xin)、CAN总(zong)线等接(jie)口的(de)系统(tong)。

(3)运转的可靠性(xing)

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建议:采购(gou)用户在选型时,需(xu)要对卧(wo)式加工中(zhong)心(xin)整体的结构(gou)设计、可靠性以及价加工适应性有客观(guan)的认(ren)识。


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